The third body part of an adult butterfly.
Non-acidic soils with alkaline salts.
The region above treeline in mountains.
- Anal margin
The area of a butterfly's hindwing along the inner margin adjacent to the body.
- Androconial scales
Specialized scales on a butterfly wing that produce scent for courtship and mating; often visible as a black or grey patch on the forewings of a male.
The clubbed sensory organ found in pairs on the head of a butterfly.
The tip of a butterfly's forewing.
The region of the world found north of treeline.
The part of a butterfly's wing close to the body.
Occurring in two-year cycles.
Wetland with acidic soil, often with clumps of spruce, larch, or cedar and with sphagnum moss.
The northern, humid coniferous forest region of North America.
The condition of water where saltwater and freshwater meet.
A wing area enclosed by veins.
The third stage of a butterfly's life cycle in which it develops in a hard case into an adult. Usually called a pupa.
Distributed around the northern regions of the Northern Hemisphere.
A gradual change over a wide geographic range in a species' appearance (size, colour, markings, etc.).
With an inward curve.
With an outward curve.
The forward edge of a butterfly's wing.
- Costal fold
The margin of the costal area that contains scent scales in some butterflies.
The hooks at the end of the chrysalis.
The state of arrested development in the immature stages of insects during which they pass unfavourable seasons for growth.
The majority of flowering plants in which the leaf veins are typically branched.
A butterfly having two different forms of the sexes or two forms of one sex. See also polymorphic.
The range of a species broken into two or more geographically separate populations.
The upper surface of a wing or body.
Distribution limited to a specified area.
Spend the summer in an inactive state.
No individuals of a species survive.
No individuals of a species survive in a given area where it formerly occurred.
With the tip of the forewing hooked.
An arctic habitat dominated by boulders with low vegetation such as lichens, mosses, grasses, and dwarf wildflowers.
The forward pair of wings.
The sex organs of a butterfly.
When female butterflies carry eggs.
A butterfly with characteristics of both sexes.
The coiled tongue of a butterfly used to sip up liquids, including nectar; sometimes called a proboscis.
Overwintering in an inactive state.
The rear pair of wings.
The Northern Hemisphere zoogeographic regions, combining Eurasia and North America to the temperate regions.
A specimen from the type series designated to represent the identity of a species.
- Inner margin
The hind edge of a forewing.
The stages of growth of a caterpillar between moults.
Not native to a region.
The second stage of a butterfly's life cycle; the caterpillar.
Found in small colonies or restricted to a very specific habitat.
A crescent-shaped mark.
The outer edge of the wings.
Bordering the sea; in Canada, the east coast provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia.
A wetland with standing water, grasses, rushes, or sedges.
The middle portion of a butterfly's wing.
A dark or blackish form of a species.
A butterfly that makes regular long-distance flights.
When a caterpillar sheds its skin.
A flowering plant whose leaf veins are unbranched, typically grasses, sedges, lilies, and orchids.
The zoogeographic region that includes Canada, the United States, Greenland, and most of Mexico.
The liquid produced by flowers to attract insects.
A mountain peak completely surrounded by glacial ice.
The fleshy organs protruded by swallowtail caterpillars that produce a strong odour.
A female laying eggs.
Male butterflies flying in a specific territory to find mates or drive away rival males.
Male butterflies on an object awaiting passing females or rival males.
A species having several forms.
The coiled tongue of a butterfly used to sip up liquids, including nectar; technically called a haustellum.
The third life stage of a butterfly in which caterpillars transform to adults.
A population left behind far from the main range of a species, particularly during a glacial period.
The shingle-like plates covering the wings of a butterfly that give it its colour and pattern.
A rock pile in the mountains at the base of a cliff or slope.
The ring-like units of a structure; e.g., segments of a caterpillar's body, segments of the antenna, etc.
- Sibling species
Two closely related, similar-looking species, but often with ecological and behavioural differences.
A waxy pouch left by a male Parnassian butterfly on the abdominal tip of a female to prevent further mating.
The breathing holes on the sides of a caterpillar or butterfly.
Specialized scent scales on the forewings of some skippers and hairstreaks.
The part of the forewing inward from the tip.
The region of the country at or near treeline.
The marks on each side of the back of a caterpillar, between the middle of the back (middorsal) and the side (lateral).
The area of the wing near but not at the wing margin.
The coniferous forest zone lying south of the arctic tundra.
- Tarsal claws
The pair of claws at the tip of a butterfly's leg.
The middle section of a butterfly's body to which the wings and legs are attached.
Transmits light, but is not transparent. Treeline The northern limit (or elevation in mountains) where trees can grow.
A bump on a caterpillar's body.
An arctic environment above treeline with stunted vegetation.
- Type locality
The collecting locality of the type specimen.
- Type series
The original set of specimens on which the description of a species is based.
- Type species
The species upon which a genus is based (a genus may contain many species but only one designated species is its type species).
- Type specimen(s)
The original specimen(s) on which the description of a species is based.
Invisible rays of the light spectrum, beyond visible light, that show up in ultraviolet photographs.
The vein pattern in the wings of butterflies.
The lower surface of the wings or body.
Reproduced with permission from The Butterflies of Canada by Ross A. Layberry, Peter W. Hall, and J. Donald Lafontaine. University of Toronto Press; 1998. Specimen photos courtesy of John T. Fowler.
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