Alsike clover (Common name)

General poisoning notes:

Alsike clover (Trifolium hybridum) is found most frequently in the farming areas of northern Canada. This plant is adapted to cool climates and heavy, poorly drained clay soils. Cases of photosensitization have occurred, sometimes accompanied by liver damage and enlargement. This problem has occurred mostly in horses and occasionally in cattle. There is also a potential for nitrate poisoning (Cooper and Johnson 1984, Cheeke and Schull 1985).

References:

  • Cheeke, P. R., Shull, L. R. 1985. Natural toxicants in feeds and poisonous plants. AVI Publishing Company, Inc., Westport, Conn., USA. 492 pp.
  • Cooper, M. R., Johnson, A. W. 1984. Poisonous plants in Britain and their effects on animals and man. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, England. 305 pp.
  • Fincher, M. G., Fuller, H. K. 1942. Photosensitization - trifoliosis - light sensitization. Cornell Vet., 32: 95-99.
  • Nation, P. N. 1989. Alsike clover poisoning: a review. Can. Vet. J., 30: 410-415.
  • Traub, J. L., Potter, K. A., Bayly, W. M., Reed, S. M. 1982. Alsike clover poisoning. Mod. Vet. Pract., 63: 307-309.

Nomenclature:

Scientific Name:
Trifolium hybridum L.
Vernacular name(s):
alsike clover
Scientific family name:
Leguminosae
Vernacular family name:
pea

Go to ITIS*ca for more taxonomic information on: Trifolium hybridum

References:

  • Agriculture Quebec. 1975. Noms des maladies des plantes du Canada / Names of plant diseases in Canada. , Quebec City, Que., Canada. 288 pp.
  • Alex, J. F., Cayouette, R., Mulligan, G. A. 1980. Common and botanical names of weeds in Canada/ Noms populaire et scientifiques des plantes nuisibles du Canada. Revised. Agric. Can. Publ., Ottawa, Ont., Canada. 132 pp.
  • Bailey, L. H., Bailey, E. Z. 1976. Hortus third. Revised. MacMillan, New York, N.Y., USA. 1290 pp.
  • Scoggan, H. J. 1978, 1979. The flora of Canada. Nat. Mus. Nat. Sci. (Ottawa) Publ. Bot. 7(1)-7(4). 1711 pp.
  • Van Wijk, H. L. 1911. A dictionary of plant names. Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, The Netherlands. 1444 pp.
  • Victorin, M. 1964. Flore Laurentienne. 2nd ed. Univ. Montreal, Montreal, Que., Canada. 952 pp.

Geographic Information

  • Alberta
  • British Columbia
  • Labrador
  • Manitoba
  • New Brunswick
  • Nova Scotia
  • Ontario
  • Prince Edward Island
  • Quebec
  • Saskatchewan
  • Yukon Territory

References:

  • Bailey, L. H., Bailey, E. Z. 1976. Hortus third. Revised. MacMillan, New York, N.Y., USA. 1290 pp.
  • Boivin, B. 1966, 1967. Énumération des plantes du Canada. Provencheria 6. Nat. Can. (Que.) 93: 253-274; 371-437; 583-646; 989-1063. 94: 131-157; 471-528; 625-655.

Image or illustration

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Notes on Poisonous plant parts:

Ingesting alsike clover causes photosensitization in horses and cattle. The toxic compounds have not been indentified. Nitrates may also accumulate in the plant (Cooper and Johnson 1984).

Toxic parts:

  • all parts
  • leaves

References:

  • Cheeke, P. R., Shull, L. R. 1985. Natural toxicants in feeds and poisonous plants. AVI Publishing Company, Inc., Westport, Conn., USA. 492 pp.

Toxic plant chemicals:

  • nitrate

References:

  • Cheeke, P. R., Shull, L. R. 1985. Natural toxicants in feeds and poisonous plants. AVI Publishing Company, Inc., Westport, Conn., USA. 492 pp.

Animals/Human Poisoning:

Note: When an animal is listed without additional information, the literature (as of 1993) contained no detailed explanation.

Cattle

General symptoms of poisoning:

References:

  • Cooper, M. R., Johnson, A. W. 1984. Poisonous plants in Britain and their effects on animals and man. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, England. 305 pp.

Horses

General symptoms of poisoning:

References:

  • Cooper, M. R., Johnson, A. W. 1984. Poisonous plants in Britain and their effects on animals and man. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, England. 305 pp.
  • Traub, J. L., Potter, K. A., Bayly, W. M., Reed, S. M. 1982. Alsike clover poisoning. Mod. Vet. Pract., 63: 307-309.

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