Red Clover (Common name)

General poisoning notes:

Red clover (Trifolium pratense) is a common clover that is used in both cultivation for forage and food for animals. It is also widely naturalized across Canada. Ingesting of this plant can cause bloat in animals. This plant is also involved in a condition called congenital joint laxity and dwarfism, which occurs sporadically across the northern part of British Columbia, Alberta, and Ontario. This disorder results in teratogenic problems in beef calves when their dams have overwintered exclusively on clover and grass silage. Red clover can also develop phytoestrogens, which affect fertility in livestock (Cheeke and Schull 1985, Ribble et al. 1989).

References:

  • Cheeke, P. R., Shull, L. R. 1985. Natural toxicants in feeds and poisonous plants. AVI Publishing Company, Inc., Westport, Conn., USA. 492 pp.
  • Hall, J. W., Majak, W. 1989. Plant and animal factors in legume bloat. Pages 93-106 in Cheeke, P. R., ed. Toxicants of plant origin. Vol. III. Proteins and amino acids. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, Fla., USA. 271 pp.
  • Ribble, C. S., Janzen, E. D., Proulx, J. G. 1989. Congenital joint laxity and dwarfism: a feed-associated congenital anomaly of beef calves in Canada. Can. Vet. J., 30: 331-338.

Nomenclature:

Scientific Name:
Trifolium pratense L.
Vernacular name(s):
red clover
Scientific family name:
Leguminosae
Vernacular family name:
pea

Go to ITIS*ca for more taxonomic information on: Trifolium pratense

References:

  • Agriculture Quebec. 1975. Noms des maladies des plantes du Canada/ Names of plant diseases in Canada., Quebec City, Que., Canada. 288 pp.
  • Alex, J. F., Cayouette, R., Mulligan, G. A. 1980. Common and botanical names of weeds in Canada/ Noms populaire et scientifiques des plantes nuisibles du Canada. Revised. Agric. Can. Publ., Ottawa, Ont., Canada. 132 pp.
  • Bailey, L. H., Bailey, E. Z. 1976. Hortus third. Revised. MacMillan, New York, N.Y., USA. 1290 pp.
  • Scoggan, H. J. 1978, 1979. The flora of Canada. Nat. Mus. Nat. Sci. (Ottawa) Publ. Bot. 7(1)-7(4). 1711 pp.
  • Van Wijk, H. L. 1911. A dictionary of plant names. Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, The Netherlands. 1444 pp.
  • Victorin, M. 1964. Flore Laurentienne. 2nd ed. Univ. Montreal, Montreal, Que., Canada. 952 pp.

Geographic Information

  • Alberta
  • British Columbia
  • Labrador
  • Manitoba
  • New Brunswick
  • Newfoundland
  • Nova Scotia
  • Ontario
  • Prince Edward Island
  • Quebec
  • Saskatchewan
  • Yukon Territory

References:

  • Bailey, L. H., Bailey, E. Z. 1976. Hortus third. Revised. MacMillan, New York, N.Y., USA. 1290 pp.
  • Boivin, B. 1966, 1967. Énumération des plantes du Canada. Provencheria 6. Nat. Can. (Que.) 93: 253-274; 371-437; 583-646; 989-1063. 94: 131-157; 471-528; 625-655.

Image or illustration

Images: red clover - Google Search

Toxic parts:

  • all parts

References:

  • Ribble, C. S., Janzen, E. D., Proulx, J. G. 1989. Congenital joint laxity and dwarfism: a feed-associated congenital anomaly of beef calves in Canada. Can. Vet. J., 30: 331-338.

Notes on Toxic plant chemicals:

Isoflavones, which are glycosides, can occur in red clover. These chemicals are plant estrogens that can cause infertility problems in livestock (Cheeke and Schull 1985).

Toxic plant chemicals:

  • isoflavones

References:

  • Cheeke, P. R., Shull, L. R. 1985. Natural toxicants in feeds and poisonous plants. AVI Publishing Company, Inc., Westport, Conn., USA. 492 pp.

Animals/Human Poisoning:

Note: When an animal is listed without additional information, the literature (as of 1993) contained no detailed explanation.

Cattle

General symptoms of poisoning:

References:

  • Cheeke, P. R., Shull, L. R. 1985. Natural toxicants in feeds and poisonous plants. AVI Publishing Company, Inc., Westport, Conn., USA. 492 pp.
  • Hall, J. W., Majak, W. 1989. Plant and animal factors in legume bloat. Pages 93-106 in Cheeke, P. R., ed. Toxicants of plant origin. Vol. III. Proteins and amino acids. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, Fla., USA. 271 pp.
  • Ribble, C. S., Janzen, E. D., Proulx, J. G. 1989. Congenital joint laxity and dwarfism: a feed-associated congenital anomaly of beef calves in Canada. Can. Vet. J., 30: 331-338.

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