Ponderosa Pine (Common name)

General poisoning notes:

Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) is a native tree in British Columbia. Pregnant cows that ingest the needles abort within 2 days to 2 weeks. Calves near full term may be born in good condition. Cows in the third trimester are affected; the problem usually occurs during winter and spring, when forage is scarce. Cows may retain the placenta. If medical attention is not given, a high degree of fatality can occur. Annual losses in the entire western United States have been estimated at 4.5 million dollars. This problem has also occurred in British Columbia (MacDonald 1952, Stevenson et al. 1972, Gartner et al. 1988, Lacey et al. 1988).

References:

  • Gartner, F. R., Johnson, F. D., Morgan, P. 1988. Cattle abortion from ponderosa pine needles: ecological and range management considerations. Pages 71-94 in James, L. F., Ralphs, M. H., Nielsen, D. B., eds. The ecology and economic impact of poisonous plants on livestock production. Westview Press, Boulder, Colo., USA. 428 pp.
  • James, L. F., Call, J. W. 1972. Pine-needle (Pinus ponderosa) - induced abortion in range cattle. Cornell Vet., 62: 519-524.
  • Lacey, J. R., James, L. F., Short, R. E. 1988. Ponderosa pine: economic impact. Pages 95-106 in James, L. F., Ralphs, M. H., Nielsen, D. B., eds. The ecology and economic impact of poisonous plants on livestock production. Westview Press, Boulder, Colo., USA. 428 pp.
  • MacDonald, M. A. 1952. Pine needle abortion in range beef cattle. J. Range Manage., 5: 150-155.
  • Molyneux, R. J., Baker, D. C., Short, R. E. 1988. Effects of various parts of the ponderosa pine on bovine pregnancy. J. Anim. Sci., 66(1): 372.
  • Murdoch, W. J., Becerra, V. M., Mills, K. W., Robinson, J. L. 1989. Evaluation of histopathologic and physiologic changes in cows having premature births after consuming ponderosa pine needles. Am. J. Vet. Res., 50: 285-289.

Nomenclature:

Scientific Name:
Pinus ponderosa Dougl.
Vernacular name(s):
ponderosa pine
Scientific family name:
Pinaceae
Vernacular family name:
pine

Go to ITIS*ca for more taxonomic information on: Pinus ponderosa

References:

  • Agriculture Quebec. 1975. Noms des maladies des plantes du Canada/ Names of plant diseases in Canada. Quebec City, Que., Canada. 288 pp.
  • Alex, J. F., Cayouette, R., Mulligan, G. A. 1980. Common and botanical names of weeds in Canada/Noms populaire et scientifiques des plantes nuisibles du Canada. Revised. Agric. Can. Publ., Ottawa, Ont., Canada. 132 pp.
  • Bailey, L. H., Bailey, E. Z. 1976. Hortus third. Revised. MacMillan, New York, N.Y., USA. 1290 pp.
  • Scoggan, H. J. 1978, 1979. The flora of Canada. Nat. Mus. Nat. Sci. (Ottawa) Publ. Bot. 7(1)-7(4). 1711 pp.
  • Van Wijk, H. L. 1911. A dictionary of plant names. Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, The Netherlands. 1444 pp.
  • Victorin, M. 1964. Flore Laurentienne. 2nd ed. Univ. Montreal, Montreal, Que., Canada. 952 pp.

Geographic Information

  • British Columbia

References:

  • Bailey, L. H., Bailey, E. Z. 1976. Hortus third. Revised. MacMillan, New York, N.Y., USA. 1290 pp.
  • Boivin, B. 1966, 1967. Énumération des plantes du Canada. Provencheria 6. Nat. Can. (Que.) 93: 253-274; 371-437; 583-646; 989-1063. 94: 131-157; 471-528; 625-655.

Image or illustration

Images: ponderosa pine - Google Search

Toxic parts:

  • needles (pine)
  • young shoots

References:

  • Gartner, F. R., Johnson, F. D., Morgan, P. 1988. Cattle abortion from ponderosa pine needles: ecological and range management considerations. Pages 71-94 in James, L. F., Ralphs, M. H., Nielsen, D. B., eds. The ecology and economic impact of poisonous plants on livestock production. Westview Press, Boulder, Colo., USA. 428 pp.
  • James, L. F., Call, J. W. 1972. Pine-needle (Pinus ponderosa) - induced abortion in range cattle. Cornell Vet., 62: 519-524.
  • MacDonald, M. A. 1952. Pine needle abortion in range beef cattle. J. Range Manage., 5: 150-155.
  • Molyneux, R. J., Baker, D. C., Short, R. E. 1988. Effects of various parts of the ponderosa pine on bovine pregnancy. J. Anim. Sci., 66(1): 372.
  • Murdoch, W. J., Becerra, V. M., Mills, K. W., Robinson, J. L. 1989. Evaluation of histopathologic and physiologic changes in cows having premature births after consuming ponderosa pine needles. Am. J. Vet. Res., 50: 285-289.

Notes on Toxic plant chemicals:

Although no chemical has been proved to cause toxicity and abortion in cattle, several toxic compounds have been suspected, including diterpene resin acids. Additional factors such as stage of gestation when ingestion occurs, environmental stress, and condition of the cow compound the problem. Inducting experimental abortion has not been consistent (Gartner et al. 1988).

Toxic plant chemicals:

  • unknown chemical

References:

  • Gartner, F. R., Johnson, F. D., Morgan, P. 1988. Cattle abortion from ponderosa pine needles: ecological and range management considerations. Pages 71-94 in James, L. F., Ralphs, M. H., Nielsen, D. B., eds. The ecology and economic impact of poisonous plants on livestock production. Westview Press, Boulder, Colo., USA. 428 pp.

Animals/Human Poisoning:

Note: When an animal is listed without additional information, the literature (as of 1993) contained no detailed explanation.

Cattle

General symptoms of poisoning:

References:

  • James, L. F., Call, J. W. 1972. Pine-needle (Pinus ponderosa) - induced abortion in range cattle. Cornell Vet., 62: 519-524.
  • MacDonald, M. A. 1952. Pine needle abortion in range beef cattle. J. Range Manage., 5: 150-155.
  • Molyneux, R. J., Baker, D. C., Short, R. E. 1988. Effects of various parts of the ponderosa pine on bovine pregnancy. J. Anim. Sci., 66(1): 372.
  • Murdoch, W. J., Becerra, V. M., Mills, K. W., Robinson, J. L. 1989. Evaluation of histopathologic and physiologic changes in cows having premature births after consuming ponderosa pine needles. Am. J. Vet. Res., 50: 285-289.

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