Lantana camara (Scientific name)

General poisoning notes:

Yellow sage (Lantana camara) is occasionally sold as a houseplant and may also be planted outdoors in the summer in Canada. Children who ingested green berries became ill and died. In warmer parts of the world (e.g., Florida, Australia), the plant grows outside and becomes weedy. Livestock have been poisoned after ingesting the entire plants. Importantly, livestock that ingest berries exhibit symptoms that are different from those of children who ingest the berries. Livestock do not normally encounter this plant in Canada, but the symptoms of poisoning are included under cattle. Sheep and goats have also been poisoned. Care should be taken to keep children as well as family pets away from this plant (Wolfson and Solomons 1964, McLennan and Amos 1989, Spoerke and Smolinske 1990). Cats and dogs that have access to yellow sage indoors can become poisoned if they ingest the immature berries of foliage of this plant. No records were found in the literature of toxicity in pets from yellow sage ingestion.

References:

  • McLennan, M. W., Amos, M. L. 1989. Treatment of lantana poisoning in cattle. Aust. Vet. J., 66: 93-94.
  • Spoerke, D. G., Smolinske, S. C. 1990. Toxicity of houseplants. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, Fla., USA. 335 pp.
  • Wolfson, S. L., Solomons, T. W. 1964. Poisoning by fruit of Lantana camara. Am. J. Dis. Child., 107: 109-112.

Nomenclature:

Scientific Name:
Lantana camara
Vernacular name(s):
yellow sage
Scientific family name:
Verbenaceae
Vernacular family name:
vervain

Go to ITIS*ca for more taxonomic information on: Lantana camara

References:

  • Agriculture Quebec. 1975. Noms des maladies des plantes du Canada/ Names of plant diseases in Canada., Quebec City, Que., Canada. 288 pp.
  • Alex, J. F., Cayouette, R., Mulligan, G. A. 1980. Common and botanical names of weeds in Canada/ Noms populaire et scientifiques des plantes nuisibles du Canada. Revised. Agric. Can. Publ., Ottawa, Ont., Canada. 132 pp.
  • Bailey, L. H., Bailey, E. Z. 1976. Hortus third. Revised. MacMillan, New York, N.Y., USA. 1290 pp.
  • Scoggan, H. J. 1978, 1979. The flora of Canada. Nat. Mus. Nat. Sci. (Ottawa) Publ. Bot. 7(1)-7(4). 1711 pp.
  • Van Wijk, H. L. 1911. A dictionary of plant names. Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, The Netherlands. 1444 pp.
  • Victorin, M. 1964. Flore Laurentienne. 2nd ed. Univ. Montreal, Montreal, Que., Canada. 952 pp.

Geographic Information

Plant or plant parts used in or around the home.

References:

  • Bailey, L. H., Bailey, E. Z. 1976. Hortus third. Revised. MacMillan, New York, N.Y., USA. 1290 pp.
  • Boivin, B. 1966, 1967. Énumération des plantes du Canada. Provencheria 6. Nat. Can. (Que.) 93: 253-274; 371-437; 583-646; 989-1063. 94: 131-157; 471-528; 625-655.

Image or illustration

Images: Lantana camara - Google Search

Notes on Poisonous plant parts:

Ingesting the leaves has caused poisoning in livestock in areas where the plant can survive outdoors, such as Florida and Australia. Young children who ingested the green berries became ill and died (Wolfson and Solomons 1964, McLennan and Amos 1989).

Toxic parts:

  • immature fruit
  • leaves

References:

  • McLennan, M. W., Amos, M. L. 1989. Treatment of lantana poisoning in cattle. Aust. Vet. J., 66: 93-94.
  • Sharma, O. P., Dawra, R. K., Makkar, H. P. 1989. Toxicity of isolated lantana (Lantana camara L.) constituents to male and female guinea pigs. Vet. Hum. Toxicol., 31: 10-13.

Notes on Toxic plant chemicals:

Lantadene A and lantadene B, which are pentacyclic triterpenes, have been suspected as the toxic constituents of yellow sage leaves. However, there are conflicting findings on the chemical toxins and their toxic affects on animals. Sharma et al. (1989) found that crystal polymorphism in the triterpenoids changes the toxicity (polyhedral crystals are toxic to guinea pigs and rod-shaped crystals are not). In addition, the toxic component of the berries has not been defined. The plant also contains a fish poison, lancamarone, that is present in the greatest concentration in the summer. The effects of this chemical on mammals have not been studied (Spoerke and Smolinske 1990).

Toxic plant chemicals:

  • lantadene A & B

References:

  • Sharma, O. P., Dawra, R. K., Makkar, H. P. 1989. Toxicity of isolated lantana (Lantana camara L.) constituents to male and female guinea pigs. Vet. Hum. Toxicol., 31: 10-13.

Animals/Human Poisoning:

Note: When an animal is listed without additional information, the literature (as of 1993) contained no detailed explanation.

Cats

No details about poisoning symptoms available.

Cattle

General symptoms of poisoning:

References:

  • Spoerke, D. G., Smolinske, S. C. 1990. Toxicity of houseplants. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, Fla., USA. 335 pp.

Dogs

No details about poisoning symptoms available.

Goats

No details about poisoning symptoms available.

Humans

General symptoms of poisoning:

Notes on poisoning:

Ingesting the green berries of yellow sage produces the following symptoms: vomiting, diarrhea, weakness, lethargy, cyanosis, slow labored breathing, dilated pupils, ataxia, coma, and depressed deep tendon reflexes. Postmortem findings showed congestion of the lungs and kidneys. The small intestines were dilated. These symptoms all occurred after an unknown quantity of the immature green berries was ingested. The rough texture of the leaves and stems discourages children from ingesting them. Humans have therefore not shown the photosensitivity and liver problems that occur when livestock ingest entire plants. Lavage should be done quickly to reduce or prevent symptoms. Several authors have reported that the ripe berries are nontoxic to humans (Wolfson and Solomons 1964, Spoerke and Smolinske 1990).

References:

  • Spoerke, D. G., Smolinske, S. C. 1990. Toxicity of houseplants. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, Fla., USA. 335 pp.
  • Wolfson, S. L., Solomons, T. W. 1964. Poisoning by fruit of Lantana camara. Am. J. Dis. Child., 107: 109-112.

Another search?