Quercus alba (Scientific name)

General poisoning notes:

White oak (Quercus alba) is a native tree found in southern Quebec and Ontario. Ingesting the leaves and acorns has caused some toxic problems in cattle. The concentration of toxic phenolics is less than in red or black oak (Q. rubra or Q. velutina). Symptoms are similar for all three species of oak. In severe cases, renal failure usually results in death (Sandusky et al. 1977, Cockrill and Beasley 1979).

References:

  • Cockrill, J. M., Beasley, J. N. 1979. Renal damage to cattle during acorn poisoning. Vet. Med. Small Anim. Clin., 74: 82, 84-85.
  • Sandusky, G. E., Fosnaugh, C. J., Smith, J. B., Mohan, R. 1977. Oak poisoning of cattle in Ohio. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 171: 627-629.

Nomenclature:

Scientific Name:
Quercus alba L.
Vernacular name(s):
white oak
Scientific family name:
Fagaceae
Vernacular family name:
beech

Go to ITIS*ca for more taxonomic information on: Quercus alba

References:

  • Agriculture Quebec. 1975. Noms des maladies des plantes du Canada/ Names of plant diseases in Canada. , Quebec City, Que., Canada. 288 pp.
  • Alex, J. F., Cayouette, R., Mulligan, G. A. 1980. Common and botanical names of weeds in Canada/Noms populaire et scientifiques des plantes nuisibles du Canada. Revised. Agric. Can. Publ., Ottawa, Ont., Canada. 132 pp.
  • Bailey, L. H., Bailey, E. Z. 1976. Hortus third. Revised. MacMillan, New York, N.Y., USA. 1290 pp.
  • Scoggan, H. J. 1978, 1979. The flora of Canada. Nat. Mus. Nat. Sci. (Ottawa) Publ. Bot. 7(1)-7(4). 1711 pp.
  • Van Wijk, H. L. 1911. A dictionary of plant names. Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, The Netherlands. 1444 pp.
  • Victorin, M. 1964. Flore Laurentienne. 2nd ed. Univ. Montreal, Montreal, Que., Canada. 952 pp.

Geographic Information

  • Ontario
  • Quebec

References:

  • Bailey, L. H., Bailey, E. Z. 1976. Hortus third. Revised. MacMillan, New York, N.Y., USA. 1290 pp.
  • Boivin, B. 1966, 1967. Énumération des plantes du Canada. Provencheria 6. Nat. Can. (Que.) 93: 253-274; 371-437; 583-646; 989-1063.94: 131-157; 471-528; 625-655.

Image or illustration

Images: Quercus alba - Google Search

Toxic parts:

  • acorns
  • leaves

References:

  • Sandusky, G. E., Fosnaugh, C. J., Smith, J. B., Mohan, R. 1977. Oak poisoning of cattle in Ohio. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 171: 627-629.

Notes on Toxic plant chemicals:

See notes under chemicals in red oak ( Quercus rubra).

Toxic plant chemicals:

  • gallic acid
  • pyrogallol
  • tannic acid

References:

  • Basden, K. W., Dalvi, R. R. 1987. Determination of total phenolics in acorns from different species of oak trees in conjunction with acorn poisoning in cattle. Vet. Hum. Toxicol., 29: 305-306.

Animals/Human Poisoning:

Note: When an animal is listed without additional information, the literature (as of 1993) contained no detailed explanation.

Cattle

General symptoms of poisoning:

Notes on poisoning:

Toxic symptoms include anorexia, rumen atony, hemorrhagic diarrhea, subcutaneous edema, ascites, and dehydration. Renal failure usually results in death. Postmortem examination revealed perirenal edema and hemorrhage. The kidneys had a characteristic nephrosis in a multifocal pattern, of the proximal convoluted tubules (Sandusky et al. 1977, Cockrill and Beasley 1979).

References:

  • Cockrill, J. M., Beasley, J. N. 1979. Renal damage to cattle during acorn poisoning. Vet. Med. Small Anim. Clin., 74: 82, 84-85.
  • Sandusky, G. E., Fosnaugh, C. J., Smith, J. B., Mohan, R. 1977. Oak poisoning of cattle in Ohio. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 171: 627-629.

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