Quercus velutina (Scientific name)

General poisoning notes:

Black oak (Quercus velutina) is a native tree found only in southern Ontario. The acorns contain significant quantities of toxic phenolics. This plant caused sickness and death in cattle after they ingested acorns on autumn pastures. The occurrence of poisoning from black oak in southern Ontario is minimal because of its restricted distribution (Sandusky et al. 1977, Basden and Dalvi 1987).

References:

  • Basden, K. W., Dalvi, R. R. 1987. Determination of total phenolics in acorns from different species of oak trees in conjunction with acorn poisoning in cattle. Vet. Hum. Toxicol., 29: 305-306.
  • Cockrill, J. M., Beasley, J. N. 1979. Renal damage to cattle during acorn poisoning. Vet. Med. Small Anim. Clin., 74: 82, 84-85.
  • Sandusky, G. E., Fosnaugh, C. J., Smith, J. B., Mohan, R. 1977. Oak poisoning of cattle in Ohio. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 171: 627-629.

Nomenclature:

Scientific Name
Quercus velutina Lam.
Vernacular name(s)
black oak
Scientific family name
Fagaceae
Vernacular family name
beech

Go to ITIS*ca for more taxonomic information on: Quercus velutina

References:

  • Agriculture Quebec. 1975. Noms des maladies des plantes du Canada/ Names of plant diseases in Canada. , Quebec City, Que., Canada. 288 pp.
  • Alex, J. F., Cayouette, R., Mulligan, G. A. 1980. Common and botanical names of weeds in Canada/Noms populaire et scientifiques des plantes nuisibles du Canada. Revised. Agric. Can. Publ., Ottawa, Ont., Canada. 132 pp.
  • Bailey, L. H., Bailey, E. Z. 1976. Hortus third. Revised. MacMillan, New York, N.Y., USA. 1290 pp.
  • Scoggan, H. J. 1978, 1979. The flora of Canada. Nat. Mus. Nat. Sci. (Ottawa) Publ. Bot. 7(1)-7(4). 1711 pp.
  • Van Wijk, H. L. 1911. A dictionary of plant names. Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, The Netherlands. 1444 pp.
  • Victorin, M. 1964. Flore Laurentienne. 2nd ed. Univ. Montreal, Montreal, Que., Canada. 952 pp.

Geographic Information

  • Ontario

References:

  • Bailey, L. H., Bailey, E. Z. 1976. Hortus third. Revised. MacMillan, New York, N.Y., USA. 1290 pp.
  • Boivin, B. 1966, 1967. Énumération des plantes du Canada. Provencheria 6. Nat. Can. (Que.) 93: 253-274; 371-437; 583-646; 989-1063. 94: 131-157; 471-528; 625-655.

Image or illustration

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Notes on Poisonous plant parts:

Ingesting oak leaves and acorns has caused poisoning. Immature acorns contain more toxin than mature acorns (Sandusky et al. 1977).

Toxic parts:

  • acorns
  • leaves

References:

  • Sandusky, G. E., Fosnaugh, C. J., Smith, J. B., Mohan, R. 1977. Oak poisoning of cattle in Ohio. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 171: 627-629.

Notes on Toxic plant chemicals:

See notes under chemical section of red oak (Quercus rubra).

Toxic plant chemicals:

  • gallic acid
  • pyrogallol
  • tannic acid

References:

  • Basden, K. W., Dalvi, R. R. 1987. Determination of total phenolics in acorns from different species of oak trees in conjunction with acorn poisoning in cattle. Vet. Hum. Toxicol., 29: 305-306.

Animals/Human Poisoning:

Note: When an animal is listed without additional information, the literature (as of 1993) contained no detailed explanation.

Cattle

General symptoms of poisoning:

References:

  • Cockrill, J. M., Beasley, J. N. 1979. Renal damage to cattle during acorn poisoning. Vet. Med. Small Anim. Clin., 74: 82, 84-85.
  • Sandusky, G. E., Fosnaugh, C. J., Smith, J. B., Mohan, R. 1977. Oak poisoning of cattle in Ohio. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 171: 627-629.

Horses

Sheep

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