Rumex venosus (Scientific name)

General poisoning notes:

Veined dock (Rumex venosus) is a native herb found in the southern part of the Canadian prairies. This plant caused poisoning of cattle in Colorado. Poisoning occurred in early spring when there was little other vegetation. Sickness and death resulted after large amounts of the plants were ingested (Dickie et al. 1978).

References:

  • Dickie, C. W., Hamann, M. H., Carroll, W. D., Chow, F. 1978. Oxalate (Rumex venosus) poisoning in cattle. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 173: 73-74.

Nomenclature:

Scientific Name:
Rumex venosus Pursh
Vernacular name(s):
veined dock
Scientific family name:
Polygonaceae
Vernacular family name:
knotweed

Go to ITIS*ca for more taxonomic information on: Rumex venosus

References:

  • Agriculture Quebec. 1975. Noms des maladies des plantes du Canada/ Names of plant diseases in Canada. , Quebec City, Que., Canada. 288 pp.
  • Alex, J. F., Cayouette, R., Mulligan, G. A. 1980. Common and botanical names of weeds in Canada/Noms populaire et scientifiques des plantes nuisibles du Canada. Revised. Agric. Can. Publ., Ottawa, Ont., Canada. 132 pp.
  • Bailey, L. H., Bailey, E. Z. 1976. Hortus third. Revised. MacMillan, New York, N.Y., USA. 1290 pp.
  • Scoggan, H. J. 1978, 1979. The flora of Canada. Nat. Mus. Nat. Sci. (Ottawa) Publ. Bot. 7(1)-7(4). 1711 pp.
  • Van Wijk, H. L. 1911. A dictionary of plant names. Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, The Netherlands. 1444 pp.
  • Victorin, M. 1964. Flore Laurentienne. 2nd ed. Univ. Montreal, Montreal, Que., Canada. 952 pp.

Geographic Information

  • Alberta
  • Manitoba
  • Saskatchewan

References:

  • Bailey, L. H., Bailey, E. Z. 1976. Hortus third. Revised. MacMillan, New York, N.Y., USA. 1290 pp.
  • Boivin, B. 1966, 1967. Énumération des plantes du Canada. Provencheria 6. Nat. Can. (Que.) 93: 253-274; 371-437; 583-646; 989-1063. 94: 131-157; 471-528; 625-655.

Image or illustration

Images: Rumex venosus - Google Search

Toxic parts:

  • leaves
  • stems

References:

  • Dickie, C. W., Hamann, M. H., Carroll, W. D., Chow, F. 1978. Oxalate (Rumex venosus) poisoning in cattle. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 173: 73-74.

Notes on Toxic plant chemicals:

Oxalate crystals are found in the aboveground parts of the plant. Levels were measured in Colorado, showing oxalates of 9.2% in April and 13.9% in June on a dry-weight basis. If sufficient quantity of plant material is ingested the oxalates combine with systemic calcium ions to form insoluble calcium oxalate, causing functional hypocalcemia in acute cases (Dickie et al. 1978).

Toxic plant chemicals:

  • oxalate

References:

  • Dickie, C. W., Hamann, M. H., Carroll, W. D., Chow, F. 1978. Oxalate (Rumex venosus) poisoning in cattle. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 173: 73-74.

Animals/Human Poisoning:

Note: When an animal is listed without additional information, the literature (as of 1993) contained no detailed explanation.

Cattle

General symptoms of poisoning:

Notes on poisoning:

Several cows became ill and died after ingesting veined dock. All the cows were suckling, but none of their calves died. Symptoms included depression and anorexia. Postmortem findings showed ecchymotic and petechial hemorrhaging on the visceral and parietal peritoneum. About 2 L of thin, yellowish fluid was in the abdominal cavity. Mesenteric lymph nodes were enlarged and edematous. Other symptoms included catarrhal abomasitis, enteritis, pale kidneys, and lung congestion (Dickie et al. 1978).

References:

  • Dickie, C. W., Hamann, M. H., Carroll, W. D., Chow, F. 1978. Oxalate (Rumex venosus) poisoning in cattle. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 173: 73-74.

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