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Maple Leaves

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Maple Leaves

Notes on poisoning: Lathyrus odoratus


General poisoning notes:

Sweet pea (Lathyrus odoratus) is a summer annual commonly cultivated because of its beautiful fragrant flowers. The pods and seeds contain BAPN (beta-aminopropionitrile), which causes osteolathyrism, a syndrome characterized by skeletal deformities and aortic rupture. This chemical was first extracted from sweet pea plants and has since been found in some other members of the genus Lathyrus. Horses are more susceptible to this syndrome than other livestock. Most of the information on osteolathyrism is based on experimental work. This problem has not occurred in humans; instead, see neurolathyrins under grass pea ( Lathyrus sativus). In Canada, ingesting enough sweet pea to cause osteolathyrism is not likely (Selye 1957, Cheeke and Schull 1985).

References:

Cheeke, P. R., Shull, L. R. 1985. Natural toxicants in feeds and poisonous plants. AVI Publishing Company, Inc., Westport, Conn., USA. 492 pp.

Lalich, J. J., Barnett, B. D., Bird, H. R. 1957. Production of aortic rupture in turkey poults fed beta-aminopropionitrile. Arch. Pathol., 64: 643-648.

Selye, H. 1957. Lathyrism. Rev. Can. Biol., 16: 1-82.

Simpson, C. F., Cardeilhac, P. T. 1983. Mortality, hemodynamics, an aortic properties among male and female turkeys fed beta-aminopropionitrile (41541). Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 172: 168-172.

Nomenclature:

Scientific Name: Lathyrus odoratus L.

Vernacular name(s): sweet pea

Scientific family name: Leguminosae

Vernacular family name: pea

Go to ITIS*ca for more taxonomic information on: Lathyrus odoratus

References:

Agriculture Quebec. 1975. Noms des maladies des plantes du Canada/ Names of plant diseases in Canada. , Quebec City, Que., Canada. 288 pp.

Alex, J. F., Cayouette, R., Mulligan, G. A. 1980. Common and botanical names of weeds in Canada/Noms populaire et scientifiques des plantes nuisibles du Canada. Revised. Agric. Can. Publ., Ottawa, Ont., Canada. 132 pp.

Bailey, L. H., Bailey, E. Z. 1976. Hortus third. Revised. MacMillan, New York, N.Y., USA. 1290 pp.

Scoggan, H. J. 1978, 1979. The flora of Canada. Nat. Mus. Nat. Sci. (Ottawa) Publ. Bot. 7(1)-7(4). 1711 pp.

Van Wijk, H. L. 1911. A dictionary of plant names. Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, The Netherlands. 1444 pp.

Victorin, M. 1964. Flore Laurentienne. 2nd ed. Univ. Montreal, Montreal, Que., Canada. 952 pp.

Geographic Information

Plant or plant parts used in or around the home.

References:

Bailey, L. H., Bailey, E. Z. 1976. Hortus third. Revised. MacMillan, New York, N.Y., USA. 1290 pp.

Boivin, B. 1966, 1967. Énumération des plantes du Canada. Provencheria 6. Nat. Can. (Que.) 93: 253-274; 371-437; 583-646; 989-1063. 94: 131-157; 471-528; 625-655.

Image or illustration

Lathyrus odoratus:

Images: images.google.com

Toxic parts:

seeds

References:

Roy, D. N., Spencer, P. S. 1989. Lathyrogens. Pages 169-201 in Cheeke, P. R., ed. Toxicants of plant origin. Vol. III. Proteins and amino acids. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, Fla., USA. 271 pp.

Toxic plant chemicals:

beta-aminoproprionitrile

References:

Roy, D. N., Spencer, P. S. 1989. Lathyrogens. Pages 169-201 in Cheeke, P. R., ed. Toxicants of plant origin. Vol. III. Proteins and amino acids. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, Fla., USA. 271 pp.

Animals/Human Poisoning:

Note: When an animal is listed without additional information, the literature (as of 1993) contained no detailed explanation.

Horses

General symptoms of poisoning:

aneurysm
gait, rigid
scoliosis

Notes on poisoning:

Literature reports of osteolathyrism show that horses are particularily susceptible. Symptoms include skeletal deformity, such as long bone curvature, kyphosis, scoliosis, osteoporosis, and poor development of connective tissue. Aortic rupture also occurs. These effects are due to defective synthesis of collagen and elastin tissue caused by BAPN (Cheeke and Schull 1985).

References:

Cheeke, P. R., Shull, L. R. 1985. Natural toxicants in feeds and poisonous plants. AVI Publishing Company, Inc., Westport, Conn., USA. 492 pp.

Rodents

General symptoms of poisoning:

abortion
aneurysm
bones, fragile

Notes on poisoning:

Experimental feeding of sweet pea seeds to rats has caused symptoms of osteolathyrism, including the production of fragile bones, muscle atrophy, fatty bone marrow, hernias, thin skin, and scoliosis (Selye 1957, Cheeke and Schull 1985).

References:

Selye, H. 1957. Lathyrism. Rev. Can. Biol., 16: 1-82.

Turkeys

General symptoms of poisoning:

aneurysm

Notes on poisoning:

Experimental feeding of the toxic chemical beta-aminopropionitrile (BAPN) caused aortic dissecting aneurysms in turkey poults. Mortality was quite high as a result. See additional information under general notes of Lathyrus sativus (Lalich et al. 1957, Simpson and Cardeilhac 1983).

References:

Lalich, J. J., Barnett, B. D., Bird, H. R. 1957. Production of aortic rupture in turkey poults fed beta-aminopropionitrile. Arch. Pathol., 64: 643-648.

Simpson, C. F., Cardeilhac, P. T. 1983. Mortality, hemodynamics, an aortic properties among male and female turkeys fed beta-aminopropionitrile (41541). Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 172: 168-172.

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Date modified: 2009-09-01