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Maple Leaves

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Maple Leaves

Notes on poisoning: Nicotiana tabacum


General poisoning notes:

Tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum) is cultivated in some areas of Canada as a commercial crop for the tobacco industry. Teratogenic problems have occurred in the United States when pregnant swine were allowed to forage on tobacco stalks. The sows showed no toxic signs. Pregnant swine should be denied access to tobacco plants. Rare cases of human dermatitis from contact with tobacco leaves have been reported (Bush and Crowe 1989, Gonçalo et al. 1990).

References:

Bush, L. P., Crowe, M. W. 1989. Nicotiana alkaloids. Pages 87-107 in Cheeke, P. R., ed. Toxicants of plant origin. Vol. I. Alkaloids. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, Fla., USA. 335 pp.

Crowe, M. W., Swerczek, T. W. 1974. Congenital arthrogryposis in offspring of sows fed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). Am. J. Vet. Res., 35: 1071-1073.

Crowe, M. W. 1969. Skeletal anomalies in pigs associated with tobacco. Mod. Vet. Pract., 50-13: 54-55.

Gonçalo, M., Couto, J., Gonçalo, S. 1990. Allergic contact dermatitis from Nicotiana tabacum. Contact Dermatitis, 22: 188-189.

Nomenclature:

Scientific Name: Nicotiana tabacum L.

Vernacular name(s): tobacco

Scientific family name: Solanaceae

Vernacular family name: nightshade

Go to ITIS*ca for more taxonomic information on: Nicotiana tabacum

References:

Agriculture Quebec. 1975. Noms des maladies des plantes du Canada/ Names of plant diseases in Canada. , Quebec City, Que., Canada. 288 pp.

Alex, J. F., Cayouette, R., Mulligan, G. A. 1980. Common and botanical names of weeds in Canada/Noms populaire et scientifiques des plantes nuisibles du Canada. Revised. Agric. Can. Publ., Ottawa, Ont., Canada. 132 pp.

Bailey, L. H., Bailey, E. Z. 1976. Hortus third. Revised. MacMillan, New York, N.Y., USA. 1290 pp.

Scoggan, H. J. 1978, 1979. The flora of Canada. Nat. Mus. Nat. Sci. (Ottawa) Publ. Bot. 7(1)-7(4). 1711 pp.

Van Wijk, H. L. 1911. A dictionary of plant names. Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, The Netherlands. 1444 pp.

Victorin, M. 1964. Flore Laurentienne. 2nd ed. Univ. Montreal, Montreal, Que., Canada. 952 pp.

Geographic Information

Plant or plant parts used in or around the home.

References:

Bailey, L. H., Bailey, E. Z. 1976. Hortus third. Revised. MacMillan, New York, N.Y., USA. 1290 pp.

Boivin, B. 1966, 1967. Énumération des plantes du Canada. Provencheria 6. Nat. Can. (Que.) 93: 253-274; 371-437; 583-646; 989-1063. 94: 131-157; 471-528; 625-655.

Image or illustration

Nicotiana tabacum:

Images: images.google.com

Notes on Poisonous plant parts:

The left-over stalks of tobacco plants that remain in the field have caused teratogenic problems. Problems are related to high-yield tobacco crops where heavy fertilization produces yields of dry leaf that exceed 1300 kg/0.40 ha. Experimental feeding of aqueous filtrate of the leaves and juice of tobacco stalks has also caused teratogenic problems in swine (Crowe and Swerczek 1974).

Toxic parts:

leaves
stems

References:

Crowe, M. W., Swerczek, T. W. 1974. Congenital arthrogryposis in offspring of sows fed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). Am. J. Vet. Res., 35: 1071-1073.

Notes on Toxic plant chemicals:

Pyridine alkaloids such as anabasine, anatabine, and perhaps anabasine, are responsible for teratogenic problems in swine. Anabasine is the major alkaloid of related Nicotiana glauca, in the southern United States, and it has caused teratogenic problems in calves, sheep, and swine. However, anabasine is found in much smaller quantities in tobacco. Anatabine and perhaps anabaseine are therefore believed to be involved in the teratogenic effects on swine (Bush and Crowe 1989).

Toxic plant chemicals:

anabasine
anatabine

References:

Bush, L. P., Crowe, M. W. 1989. Nicotiana alkaloids. Pages 87-107 in Cheeke, P. R., ed. Toxicants of plant origin. Vol. I. Alkaloids. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, Fla., USA. 335 pp.

Animals/Human Poisoning:

Note: When an animal is listed without additional information, the literature (as of 1993) contained no detailed explanation.

Humans

General symptoms of poisoning:

eczema

References:

Gonçalo, M., Couto, J., Gonçalo, S. 1990. Allergic contact dermatitis from Nicotiana tabacum. Contact Dermatitis, 22: 188-189.

Swine

General symptoms of poisoning:

arthrogryposis

Notes on poisoning:

Pregnant sows that ingested tobacco stalks between day 10 and day 50 of gestation developed arthrogryposis, often involving all limbs of the pigs. Occasionally, vertebral column arching has occurred (Crowe 1969, Crowe and Swerczek 1974, Bush and Crowe 1989).

References:

Crowe, M. W., Swerczek, T. W. 1974. Congenital arthrogryposis in offspring of sows fed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). Am. J. Vet. Res., 35: 1071-1073.

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Date modified: 2009-09-01