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Integrated Taxonomic Information System
Taxonomy and Nomenclature
grunting ox [English]
domestic yak [English]
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Bos grunniens grunniens
Bos grunniens mutus
Alfred L. Gardner.
Curator of North American mammals and Chief of Mammal Section, National Biological Service, Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC, USA
35 Downhills Park Road, London N17 6PE, England
database: NODC Taxonomic Code;
website: Mammal Species of the World; http://nmnhgoph.si.edu/msw/
Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005-10-01.
Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2. Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore, Maryland, USA. 2142. 0-8018-8221-4. .
Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1992-01-01.
Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing. Smithsonian Institution Press. Washington, DC, USA. xviii + 1207. 1-56098-217-9. Corrections were made to text at 3rd printing.
Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole 2000-01-01.
Common Names of Mammals of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press. Washington, DC, USA. xiv + 204. 1-56098-383-3. With contributions by Bernadette N. Graham, Adam P. Potter, and Mariana M. Upmeyer.
Europe & Northern Asia (excluding China)
Wilson & Reeder, eds. (2005): Status: CITES - Appendix I as B. mutus (excluding domesticated form); U.S. ESA - Endangered as B. mutus (= grunniens m.); IUCN - Vulnerable
Wilson & Reeder, eds. (2005): Comments: Includes mutus; but see Corbet (1978c:206). Formerly placed in Poephagus. Reviewed by Olsen (1990). Gentry et al. (1996) proposed that majority usage be confirmed by adoption of Bos mutus as the name for the wild taxon of yak, though it has not been demonstrated that most authors have termed the wild yak B. mutus rather than B. grunniens (or B. g. mutus). Gentry et al. (1996) asked the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature to use its plenary powers to rule that the name for th...
David Mitchell, ITIS: ITIS defers to Wilson & Reeder (eds., 2005) on the correct name for a species when the choice is between an older name based on a domestic form and a younger name based on a wild form. ICZN Opinion 2027 (3/2003) sought to resolve this, but by itself the Ruling contained in that Opinion effectively says that it cannot be based on priority. More explicit guidance is found in the "History of Case 3010" section of the Opinion, but ITIS has been advised that only the Ruling section is binding. Thus, there is apparently no basis upon which to select the correct (valid) name
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