Alfred L. Gardner. Curator of North American mammals and Chief of Mammal Section, National Biological Service, Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC, USA
W. Christopher Wozencraft. Division of Natural Sciences, Bethel College, 1001 W. McKinley Ave., Mishawaka, IN 46545
Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner 1987-01-01. Resource Publication, no. 166. United States Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service. Washington, D.C., USA. 79. . .
Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005-10-01. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2. Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore, Maryland, USA. 2142. 0-8018-8221-4. .
Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1992-01-01. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing. Smithsonian Institution Press. Washington, DC, USA. xviii + 1207. 1-56098-217-9. Corrections were made to text at 3rd printing.
Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes 2003-12-31. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. . . . . As-yet (2003) unpublished manuscript from 1998.
Rice, Dale W. 1998-01-01. Special Publications of the Society for Marine Mammals, no. 4. The Society for Marine Mammalogy. Lawrence, Kansas, USA. ix + 231. 1-891276-03-4. .
Wilson & Reeder, eds. (2005): Comments: Reviewed by Allen (1880, 1892), Repenning et al. (1971), Mitchell and Tedford (1973), J. E. King (1983), Berta and Deméré (1986), Barnes (1989) and Wynen et al. (2001). Does not include Odobenus, which was included in a monotypic subfamily (Odobeninae within Otariidae) by Mitchell and Tedford (1973), Tedford (1976), Hall (1981), Barnes (1989), and Wozencraft (1989a, b); however, see Wyss (1987) and Berta (1991). Berta and Deméré (1986) separated Arctocephalus and Callorhinus into the Arctoc...