Bruce B. Collette. Senior Scientist, National Systematics Laboratory, National Marine Fisheries Service; Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC, USA
Wayne C. Starnes. Research Curator of Fishes, North Carolina State Museum of Natural Sciences, Research Laboratory, 4301 Reedy Creek Rd., Raleigh, NC, 27607, USA
Nelson, Joseph S., Edwin J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, et al., eds. 2004-01-01. American Fisheries Society Special Publication, no. 29. American Fisheries Society. Bethesda, Maryland, USA. ix + 386. 1-888569-61-1. Full author list: Nelson, Joseph S., Edwin J. Crossman, Héctor Espinosa-Pérez, Lloyd T. Findley, Carter R. Gilbert, Robert N. Lea, and James D. Williams.
Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes 2003-12-31. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. . . . . As-yet (2003) unpublished manuscript from 1998.
Shiino, Sueo M. 1976-09-01. Science Report of Shima Marineland, no. 4. Shima Marineland. Kashikojima, Shima, Mie, Japan. 262. . .
Nelson, Joseph S. 1994-01-01. Fishes of the World, Third Edition. John Wiley and Sons. New York, New York, USA. xvii + 600. 0-471-54713-1. .
David Nicolson - ITIS Data Development Coordinator: Orrell et al. (2006) conclude that Sphyraena (barracudas) do not belong in Scombroidei. Collette (in litt., August 2008) notes that "opinions vary as to just where to place them but the evidence for putting them in the Scombroidei is weak," and advises placing the genus in Percoidei for now