Alfred L. Gardner. Curator of North American mammals and Chief of Mammal Section, National Biological Service, Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC, USA
Robert S. Hoffman. Assistant Secretary for the Sciences, Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC 20560
Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner 1987-01-01. Resource Publication, no. 166. United States Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service. Washington, D.C., USA. 79. . .
Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005-10-01. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2. Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore, Maryland, USA. 2142. 0-8018-8221-4. .
Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1992-01-01. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing. Smithsonian Institution Press. Washington, DC, USA. xviii + 1207. 1-56098-217-9. Corrections were made to text at 3rd printing.
Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes 2003-12-31. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. . . . . As-yet (2003) unpublished manuscript from 1998.
Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole 2000-01-01. Common Names of Mammals of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press. Washington, DC, USA. xiv + 204. 1-56098-383-3. With contributions by Bernadette N. Graham, Adam P. Potter, and Mariana M. Upmeyer.
Wilson & Reeder, eds. (2005): Comments: There have been no grounds for recognizing subgenera due to lack of a phylogenetic analysis of specific relationships within the genus. The subgeneric classifications published (e.g., Allen, 1938; Ellerman and Morrison-Scott, 1951; Erbajeva, 1988; Ognev, 1940) differ dramatically, even when based on the same distinguishing characteristics (morphology of dentition and of incisive and palatal foramina). However, a recent phylogenetic analysis (Yu et al., 2000) based on molecular sequencing, d...
Robert S. Hoffman: Status: Due to apparent restricted distributions and poor knowledge about population status, only a few species are considered threatened or endangered. However, a number of subspecies and local populations may be reduced or extinct (see species accounts)