Alfred L. Gardner. Curator of North American mammals and Chief of Mammal Section, National Biological Service, Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC, USA
Peter Grubb. 35 Downhills Park Road, London N17 6PE, England
Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner 1987-01-01. Resource Publication, no. 166. United States Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service. Washington, D.C., USA. 79. . .
Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005-10-01. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2. Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore, Maryland, USA. 2142. 0-8018-8221-4. .
Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1992-01-01. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing. Smithsonian Institution Press. Washington, DC, USA. xviii + 1207. 1-56098-217-9. Corrections were made to text at 3rd printing.
Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes 2003-12-31. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. . . . . As-yet (2003) unpublished manuscript from 1998.
Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole 2000-01-01. Common Names of Mammals of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press. Washington, DC, USA. xiv + 204. 1-56098-383-3. With contributions by Bernadette N. Graham, Adam P. Potter, and Mariana M. Upmeyer.
Wilson & Reeder, eds. (2005): Comments: Formerly included Rusa, Rucervus, and Przewalskium as subgenera, see Groves and Grubb (1987). Van Gelder (1977b) also included Elaphurus, Axis, Dama and Hyelaphus. Information from various sources suggests that Cervus sensu lato is polyphyletic or paraphyletic. Dendrograms derived from mitochondrial-DNA restriction-site maps suggest that Axis axis and Rucervus duvauceli form a sister-clade to Elaphurus davidianus, Rusa unicolor and Cervus elaphus (Cronin, 1991), whereas genetic distances ob...