W. Christopher Wozencraft. Division of Natural Sciences, Bethel College, 1001 W. McKinley Ave., Mishawaka, IN 46545
Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005-10-01. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2. Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore, Maryland, USA. 2142. 0-8018-8221-4. .
Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1992-01-01. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing. Smithsonian Institution Press. Washington, DC, USA. xviii + 1207. 1-56098-217-9. Corrections were made to text at 3rd printing.
Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole 2000-01-01. Common Names of Mammals of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press. Washington, DC, USA. xiv + 204. 1-56098-383-3. With contributions by Bernadette N. Graham, Adam P. Potter, and Mariana M. Upmeyer.
Wilson & Reeder, eds. (2005): Status: CITES - Appendix I; U. S. ESA - Endangered as U. t. gedrosianus; IUCN - Critically Endangered as U. t. gedrosinus, otherwise Vulnerable
Wilson & Reeder, eds. (2005): Comments: Placed in subgenus Selenarctos by Gromov and Baranova (1981); and in subgenus Euarctos by Thenius (1979). Allen (1938) suggested a close relationship to U. americanus; Pocock (1932a) retained in a separate genus -- there is molecular support for both positions (Goldman et al., 1989). Synonyms allocated according to Ellerman and Morrison-Scott (1951)